I have divided my presentation into these parts:
- Who was him?
- Early Life
- Political Career
- Presidency of United States of America
- Last Days
- Important facts
- Who was him?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt born in Hyde Park, New York State, United States in 1882 and dead in Georgia, USA, in 1945 was a politician, diplomatic and american lawyer who was the 32nd U.S President for 13 years, the only one elected four times. He was member of the democratic party and he is known because of leading United States through it´s worst economic crisis, the Great Depression, and through the Second World War
- Early Life
Franklin D. Roosevelt was born on January, 30 1882 into a wealthy family in the state of New York. He was the only child of James Roosevelt and Sara Ann Delano. At first he was educated by private tutors but later on he attended Groton School boys, an episcopal school but he was not very good accepted by the other students. He entered Harvard University where he became engaged to Eleanor Roosevelt, his fifth cousin, also niece of Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin´s idol and president of USA. They got married on 1905 and then he studied law at Columbia University. He had five children with Eleanor.
- Political Career
In 1910, at the age of 28 Roosevelt was invited to start at politics being democratic candidate for the Senate of the New York State by the district of Hyde park, where had been electing republicans for 32 years and with the help of its money and his name he won.
Due to his support to Wilson in the presidential elections, he rewarded FDR with the post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy, the same job that his idol, Theodore Roosevelt had used to catapult himself to the presidency. He found the prestigious U.S Naval Reserve, that you probably know.
In 1914, Roosevelt was hardly defeated in the run for the U.S Senate seat for New York and he had to be some time out of the politics because of having won a lot of enemies in it´s party.
In 1920 he became candidate for vice-president but him and his run-mate, the candidat for presidency, James M.Cox were defeated by the Republicans led by Warren G. Harding.
Soon, he was diagnosed as having contracted polio, but he refused to accept that he was permanently paralyzed. Despite his effords he never regained the use of his legs. Then, he believed that his political career was over but Eleanor and his Friends enconrauged him to continue. Over the next several years he worked hard to improve his physical and political image. He also improve his relationship with the democratic leaders and he increased his national exposure.
- Presidency of the United States of America
Roosevelt was elected Governor of New York in 1928 and that victory gave him confidece that his political star was rising. By 1930 Republicans were blaimed for the Great Depression and Franklin realised that was the time for running for the presidency. He defeated in 1932 Herbert Hoover and he became president with 13 million unemployed Americans and hundreds of Banks closed. Roosevelt faced the worst crisis in U.S history.
In his first 100 days he proposed the New Deal, a big reform that helped to finish with the Great Depression.
In 1940, Roosevelt was not sure to run for a third term as president but with Germany´s victories and Japan´s growing dominance in Asia, he felt that only he had the experience and skills to lead America in that times. He defeated the republican Wendell Willkie.
During 1941, he expanded the Army and Navy and increased the flows of supplies to the Allies. Hopes of keeping the USA out of the war ended with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on 1941.
During the World War II, Roosevelt depeloped a strategy for defeating Germany in Europe through a series of invasions, first in North Africa in 1942, then Sicily and Italy in 1943 and finally in 1944 by the D-Day in Normandia.
Roosevelt also promoted the formation of the United Nations.
In 1945 he attended the Yalta Conference with British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill and Soviet General Secretary, Joseph Stalin to discuss post-war reorganization.
- Last years
The stress of war started to affect Franklin and in 1944 tests indicated that he had aterosclerosis but in spite of this he run for another term as president because the country was deeply involved in the war and he selected Truman as his running mate and together they defeated again the republicans.
He returned to the United States and he dead in Warm Springs, Georgia on the afternoon of April 12, 1945 because of a massive cerebral hemorrhage and died.
His death shocked the Americans, the man that led him in the Great Depression and in the WWII was dead then, a whole generation of americans had grown up knowing no other president.
- Great Depression, New Deal, UN, WWII
If I talk about Roosevelt, in my opinion I have to explain more about his main facts. He finished with the Great Depression thanks to the New Deal that I am going to explain. He was one of the most relevant precursors of the United Nations and he led the United States of America in the WWII but he was not who ordered drop the bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was Harry Truman because when this happened Franklin was alredy dead.
6.1 The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic crisis in the decade preceding World War II. It of course started in the USA with the stock market crash in the Black Tuesday. It was resolved at least in the USA thanks to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. At the moment that Franklin won the elections there were 13 millions unemployed. It was developed between 1933 and 1938 with the main objetive of reactive it´s economy. It included bank´s reform and social assitance and agricultural programs. The results were fantastics with an incredible reduction of unemployment. Why we didn´t put in practice a european new deal?
6.2 Franklin Roosevelt served as president for all but four months of WWII, leading USA through one of the worst periods in its history. Under Franklin´s leadership, the nation rebounded from the devasting surprise attack at Pearl Harbour in 1941, nearly achieving victory in both Europe and the Pacific. He couldn´t see his nation becoming the greatest power as I have said.
6.3 Delano and Churchill were who proposed to create a great powerful organisation among all the world, calling it the United Nations to establish peace and not repeat again a World War.
One Curiosity is that a lot of people think that FDR was mason, as far as they say that he was member of a mason lodge and that after swearing it´s position as president he went to the presentation of one of his sons as Mason Master. Also, it is said that he was hard attacked in Germany and Japan in newspapers for being a mason.
Maybe, you have thought that how he could be president for 13 years if Obama, for example only can be 8, that´s because until him everybody could be president as much legislatures as elected, the law was changed after his death.
One thing that I haven´t told you is that he had a lover, Lucy Mercer Rutherfurd, who was with Franklin when he died. Eleanor disvovered them once but she needed the money of Roosevelt´s family and Franklin´s mother threatened her to abandon her with the five children with no money if she had asked for divorce. Sara Ann Delano was very clever and she knew that if the people would know that Franklin had a lover, they won´t trust on him. She always knew that Roosevelt would reach the Oval Room.
The most famous quote of Roosvelt was “Maybe Somoza is a mother… But he is our mother” Somoza was a dictator from Nicaragua and as you can see Franklin didn´t like him very much
Well, that´s all about Roosevelt but I would like to say one more thing, for me Roosevelt was one of the best presidents ever, I am not talking about his personanility, maybe he wasn´t a very good person, I don´t know, but he was what he had to be, he fought more than anyone for his country, he defended it, he made it the greatest and he sacrified his life for the United States of America. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Thank you very much for listening.